ENDO ONCOLOGY

Endourology is a speciality area of urology that deals with diagnosing and treating urinary tract disorders with small internal endoscopic instruments. The instruments allow the surgeon to see into the urinary tract and execute the surgery. The primary purpose of endourology is to use minimally invasive techniques for treating issues while surpassing classical open surgeries. A urologist, although technically is a surgical specialist, is knowledgeable in multiple areas like paediatrics, gynaecology, internal medicine because of the wide spectrum of clinical issues they deal with. There are seven subspecialties under endourology :

  • Pediatric urology
  • Renal transplantation
  • Calculi- stones in the urinary tract
  • Male infertility
  • Urologic oncology(cancer)
  • Neurourology treating erectile dysfunction, urodynamic evaluation or voiding disorders
  • Female urology involving disorder in pelvic outlet relaxation or urinary incontinence

How are endourological procedures performed

Endourology is also called minimally invasive urological surgery or laparoscopic surgery. The endourological surgery is performed by inserting tiny instruments like lasers, miniature stone retrieval baskets, scalpels graspers and cautery through the urethra, bladder or ureter to execute the surgery without any large incisions

Different types of endourological surgeries

  • Urethroscopy is performed when the surgeon has to get a thorough look into the urethra or bladder and draw some tissues from either area as a sample to test and diagnose the problem. The most common use of this procedure is treating strictures of urethra blockage.
  • Cystoscopy is the process of looking into the bladder using a miniature and thin camera called the cystoscope. It is delicately inserted into the bladder through the urethra to allow the doctor to see inside the bladder. A few tiny instruments can be passed down the cystoscopy to treat some bladder problems
  • Nephroscopy is a non-surgical procedure that allows doctors to examine and evaluate the inside of kidneys. Most commonly used to treat kidney stones, kidney lining tumours, and other ailments in the upper urinary tract, nephroscopy uses a tiny instrument called nephroscope whose thin tube part is inserted passed the skin.
  • Ureteroscopy is one of the most effective ways of dealing with urine blockages and tumours in the ureter. It allows the surgeon to have a clear view of the urinary tract, break or remove stones, or some suspicious tissue. In some cases the surgeon uses this procedure as a part of shock wave lithotripsy, to break kidney stones.
  • Laparoscopy is a keyhole surgical procedure performed by making tiny incisions in the abdomen or pelvis to access organs like bladder or kidneys
  • Pelviscopy or simply pelvic laparoscopy is a small surgical procedure conducted on the organ within the pelvis through keyhole incisions.

Need for Endourology

Endourology is a very useful category of surgical procedures, however, its wise and smart to visit and get evaluated by an endourologist or laparoscopist before opting for it. The doctor considers the medical history of the patient along with the nature of his disease. This helps in the selection of the right procedure. Conditions that can be treated with less invasive surgeries of endourology include :

  • Stones and tumours in the bladder
  • Enlarged prostate in males
  • Stones and tumours in kidneys
  • Blockages in urethra and ureter

Endourology is a surgical speciality has been advancing constantly. A consistent effort is being put-in to make surgeries as minimally invasive as possible. Several urological operations that could once be conducted only through open surgeries are now being conducted with a laparoscope. Technology has brought these revolutionary changes that simply the healing and recovery part for patients. However, its critically important that urologists have the skill, training and experience of using the surgical microscope and other instruments so as execute the surgery flawlessly.